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The historical background of American English

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Заведующая кафедрой "Иностранные языки""
Город
г. Тараз
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28.05.2015
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Согласно названию статьи, описывается историческое развитие американского английского языка, заимствования из других языков и особенности произношения.

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The historical background of American English

According to Richard Hogg, “American English and British English are the two major national varieties of English and it goes without saying that they take the leading positions today among other varieties of English Language.”[1]. In order to understand better the origin of the American language we must have some notion of the historical development of the nation and its speech. First of all, we should take into consideration political, economic, geographical and possibly the religious life of Americans. The English used in America and the English used in Britain began consequently to drift apart. Day by day through different periods in the history of American Language, the spelling, pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar have changed. Before English speakers began to spread around the world, there was no British English. There was only English. Karol Janicki in his book “Elements of British and American English” wrote about one of the most important dates in the beginning of AE: “One of the most significant dates in the history of America is the arrival of the first group of colonists and the immediately ensuing events that contribute to a large extent to and affect in many respects the nature of both American society and the language as spoken by most of the members of the society. After the first settlers had reached America and gradually had adjusted themselves to the new environment, it turned out that the New Land could give food and refuge to millions of people who were brave enough to take the risk of going to the unknown.”[2].

The beginnings of Americans began with Captain John Smith who led the first group of brave English- speakers to the America continent in 1607. The first group of colonists wasn’t so successful that is expected to be. Only a small number of people among 120 colonists succeeded the shores of America. The first point of destination was the “Promised land” that is located in Virginia. The majority of people were from Europe who desired to find a better life in America. People left Europe to come to South Carolina because it provided them with new financial and job opportunities. In physical size, the United States is nearly as large as the entire European continent, with even greater variability in climate and topography. That’s the perfect place for moving populations. There were a great number of factors for settlement America such as discontinuity with the European past, decentralization, democracy, a large land area and a large and ethnically diverse population. The good mobility required a good level of adaptability. Change of location required change of style. The first European settlers had to adapt the new life in America. Later immigrants could adjust to the new conditions in social structures, technology and attitudes. The European Laws were not so conservative as Americans, but federal structure in the USA has more advantages. People went to America seeking and hoping to find there the freedom which they did not have in their mother country. But in searching a better life they had to face many problems. The first one was economic dependence on Britain which considered America to be just a supplying colony of raw materials. But the Britain was aimed to do everything for preventing the further settlements of Europeans. On September 5, 1774, as a definite manifestation of settlers, the colonists gathered at the first Continental Congress in Philadelphia. A few months later, the first groups of American soldiers were ready to face the British army in a military battle. From this point we can say that the history of Americans and American English can be divided into periods of wars and declarations. Though English speakers had established contacts with a new world in the USA, directly or not, the Jamestown colony began the creation of a new variety of the language.

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